Melanoma is the most severe kind of skin cancer. It grows in the (melanocytes) cells that generate melanin. Melanin is the pigment that facilitates the skin its color. Melanoma can also develop in your eyes, throat, or nose.
The exact reason for developing melanoma isn’t known. However, it is believed that melanoma grows in the skin with excessive exposure to Ultraviolet (UV) rays. The diminished contact of skin to the Ultraviolet rays can reduce the symptoms.
The risk of Melanoma revolves more around people under the age of 40 and particularly women. Familiarity with the symptoms and causes of Melanoma can help reducing its development. The early detection and treatment can root out Melanoma.
Symptoms of Melanoma
Melanoma more likely develops in the parts of the body, which remain in the exposure of sun, like leg, back, and face.
It can also grow in parts, which remain in less exposure to the UV rays like palm, fingernail, and feet. These are more common in people with darker skin.
The primary symptoms of Melanoma are-
- Change in the existing mole
- The expansion of a fresh pigmented or odd-looking enlargement on your skin
Melanoma does not always develop with a mole. It can also take place on usual- appearing skin.
- Normal Moles
Normal moles are usually of regular color like black, brown, or tan. These have a different border untying the mole from your nearby skin. These are round or oval in shape, usually 1/4inch in size.
Most of the moles develop in childhood and fresh moles form until about 40 years of age. While people step into adolescent age, they have 10-40 moles. The moles might modify over time and some of them may fade away as well.
- Odd moles that signify melanoma-
- A for asymmetrical Shape
- B for a border (irregular)
- C for Changes in color
- D for diameter (1/4inch)
- E for evolving
Cancerous moles differ greatly in their appearance. Some of them may depict all of the pre-arranged changes, and some of them show one or two of them.
Melanomas also develop in the part of the body, which is less exposed to the UV rays, like eyes, nose, in between toes, scalp, soles, or genitals. These are called hidden melanomas. Hidden melanomas are general in people with dark skin. You can experience-
- Melanoma under a nail
- Melanoma in the digestive tract, vagina, urinary tract or mouth
- Melanoma in eyes
Causes of Melanomas
Melanoma develops when something goes incorrect in the melanocytes, the cells that give skin its color.
In a normal mode, the skin cells grow gradually, and systematically. The fresh cells take the place of the older ones and drive them to the edges, where they expire and collapse. However, when the DNA of some cells is damaged, they grow un-orderly and gradually form cancer. The formation of melanoma from the DNA Damage is unclear. Doctors believe that environmental and genetic causes lead to the development of melanoma.
Besides, the doctors hold ultraviolet rays responsible for the development of melanoma, exposure to UV rays cannot be the only cause of growing melanoma as it also develops in the parts, which remain at less or no exposure to the UV rays. This indicates that other factors are also responsible for the development of melanoma.
Who is at more risk?
People who have-
- Fair skin
- History of sunburn
- Extreme exposure to UV light
- Residence near the equator, or high altitude
- Family history of melanoma
- Weak immune systems are more prone to melanomas
Prevention from Melanoma
You can prevent yourself from melanoma while taking care and performing the following measures-
- Keep yourself away from the mid-day sun
- Put in sunscreen with an SPF of at least 30. Apply it kindly and re-apply every two hours.
- Be dressed in defending clothing
- Shun beds and tanning lamps, they emanate UV rays
- Notice your skin regularly
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